Koruga Nagamasa noted that ‘‘ The art of peace and the art of war are like the two wheels of a cart, which lacking one will have difficulty in standing. Myamoto Mushashi ,Japans most famous swordsman also excelled in painting , sculpture , garden design , metallurgy , and writing . The Hagakure dictated by a man who was at once warrior and poet, epitomizes this ideal. The ideal of Confucius , courage, loyalty , and sincerity was adopted by the Japanese Samurai by the twelfth century. Japanese warriors as well as ancient Chinese warrior class were considered as gentlemen. ` The ways of the gentleman are three. In humanity he has no anxieties. In wisdom he has no confusion. And in courage he has no fears.’’ Without anxiety , confusion and fear, when he looks into himself he will find nothing vexatious . For a Samurai loyalty is paramount, this is apart from his courage, strength, and his wisdom.The Chinese character for loyalty [ CHU] in Japanese depicts an arrow going through the center of a target over the radical for heart and mind. In Japanese it is total commitment of the heart – mind to a person or thing. In Japanese [ CHU] , loyalty has another pronunciation Magakoro, or sincerity, or a condition of words becoming facts. Sincerity and loyalty define a Samurai, Warrior or Gentleman. Only those under heaven who are absolutely sincere can develop their nature to the fullest. Therefor the Samurai. And Gentlemen place great store in SINCERITY. This leads one on to completion and correctness in harmony with the way. There exists this passage from the Hagakure. ‘ He who is sincere hits the mark without effort and grasps the situation without thinking. An army with even a small number of true Samurai can achieve heroic and astonishing results in battle.
Rulers should also possess a corresponding wisdom and sincerity. For Rulers their outward nature should reflect dignity in a paucity of words. There is dignity. There is dignity in a calm aspect. There is dignity In flawlessness of manners. There is dignity in Solemn behavior .There is dignity in deep insight and a clear perspective. These are all reflected on the surface, but in the end their foundation is simplicity of thought and tautness of spirit. For leaders and warriors alike ` There is something to be learned from a rainstorm. When meeting with a sudden shower, you try not to get wet, and run quickly along the road. But doing such things as passing under the eves of houses you will still get wet. When you are Resolved from the beginning you will not be perplexed, though you still get the same soaking. This understanding extends to everything, including war. Having been resolved beforehand. A warrior must also be resolved to outstrip all others on the battlefield. If one wills himself to defeat warriors of accomplishment , and strike down a powerful enemy, he will grow indefatigable and will grow fierce of heart, and will manifest courage.
In the Hagakure exists this passage ` Calculating people are contemptible. The reason for this is that calculation deals with loss and gain, and the loss and gain mind never stops. Death is considered loss and life is considered gain. Thus, death is something that such a person does not care for, and he is contemptible. For a Samurai this sentiment is immeasurably worse. Furthermore, scholars and the like are men who with words and speech hide their own true cowardice and greed. People often misjudge this.’
In war if a Samurai uses discrimination he will fall behind In war a Samurai must become desperate in the way. When a Samurai’s attitude on courage is fixed in his heart,and when his resolution is firm ,when the time comes he will naturally be able to choose the right move on impulse. This will be manifested in ones conduct and speech according to the occasion.
Samurai and warriors who naturally have a tendency towards bravery were and are for the most part today Rowdies. Out often running amok their vitality was strong and they were brave. In war this type of warrior is indispensable .
Uesugi Kenishin said ` I never knew about winning from the beginning to the end, but only about not being behind in a situation. In each and every instance ones function or responsiveness will not be shallow if he is not behind.’’ This is important for commanders to stress in their men. Lord Aki also noted. ` Martial valor is a matter of becoming a fanatic. ‘
A true Samurai must also be disciplined. Narutomi Hyogo said `What is called winning is defeating ones allies; defeating ones allies is defeating oneself , and defeating oneself is vigorously overcoming ones own body. It is as though a man were in the midst of ten thousand allies, but not a one was following him. If one has not previously mastered his mind and body, he will not defeat the enemy. Yamamoto Gin Amon said about his warriors ` Go ahead and gamble and lie .’ Sagara Kyuma also excused retainers who had committed theft and adultery and trained them gradually , he said` If it were not for such persons, we would have no useful men at all. Yamamoto Gin Amon also said ` Walk with a real man for one hundred yards and he will tell you seven lies ‘ It is best to have an army filled with such men. If a Samurai will simply think of what he has to do for the day at hand he will be able to do anything. It’s just a simple days work, tomorrow also is just one day. Before an attack wait for the right moment, and in the waiting one will not forget the attack.Lord Aki declared ` On the battlefield once discrimination starts it cannot be stoped, one will not break through to the enemy with discrimination . Indiscrimination is most important when confronting the tiger in his den’’. At the moment of truth tactics are of little use.It has been said that the principles of the art of war is simply to lay down ones life and strike.
Defeating one opponent is a matter of faith and destiny. A Samurai must have a true mind, simple and without complication. Unattached to life and death. Samurai who died well at the time of their death were men of real bravery, while those who became agitated at the time of their death were known not to have true bravery.
For Rulers, well developed intuition is of great benefit . To be able to correctly gauge the temperament of the enemy, and intuit his next moves. This can be potentially more effective than a propensity of intelligence . In war all other forms of human endeavor shrink to insignificance. War is always a gamble. So it is best to posses a full range of understanding on the matter. A Ruler uses his understanding of DOCTRINE, STRATEGY, and TACTICS, with his existing troops to knit together an effective successful fighting force.
Wars are won in surprise moves. In preparations for such surprise moves stealth is paramount. Yamamoto Gin Amon said` Tether even a roasted chicken , and wrap your intentions in needles of pine’’. In war there are times when a warrior must become irrational and half mad to be able to punch right through without regard for anything else.Yamamoto Gin Amon also said ` Outside the skin of a tiger, inside the Hyde of a dog.’’
LUCK and KARMA have much to do with victory and defeat.